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Edgar Fuentes's Asset-based Community Development MOU Page


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SING & READ: A Family Literacy Workshop


Partners: This template outlines the plan for collaboration between Houston Public Library and the Houston Grand Opera personnel to establish the goals and objectives of the library-agency partnership for community outreach in family literacy. It contains the elements found in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). These MOU components were adapted from the work of Mary Beth Harrington. 


• Goals

1. To establish “Sing & Read,” a parent/caretaker education program that will focus on music and singing to promote literacy skills.

2. To positively influence parent/caregiver attitudes towards reading aloud and singing to children.

3. To begin program promotion early and effectively targeting the intended preschool audience.

• Objectives

Objectives for Goal #1:

A. To conduct an average of 15 workshops each month at 7 strategic Houston Public Library locations: the four regional libraries (Park Place, Alief, Collier, and Scenic Woods), Central, Stella Link Neighborhood Library, and at the Parent Resource Library at the Children’s Museum of Houston (which is also part of the Houston Public Library system).

B. To base the program on Every Child Ready to Read techniques.


Objectives for Goal #2:

A. To survey all participants in order to gain parent/caretaker feedback and obtain valuable feedback regarding the efficacy of the program.

B. To provide parent/caretaker information related to the five practices outlined in the 2nd edition of Every Child Ready to Read: talk, sing, read, write, and play.

Objectives for Goal #3:

A. The library will be contacting daycares, elementary schools, and providing a press release to local media, and creating flyers for “in-house” promotion. The outreach goal for the library is to make at least 2,000 outreach contacts during the promotion phase.

B. To reach over 3,000 adults and children at the end of the first year of the program.

• ALSC Competencies: Fuentes_MOU_Competencies.docx


• Evidence-based Practice

Anvari, Sima. H., Laurel J. Trainor, Jennifer Woodside, and Betty Ann Levy. 2002. "Relations Among Musical Skills, Phonological Processing, and Early Reading Ability in Preschool Children." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 83, no. 2: 111-130. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0965(02)00124-8


Learning a language requires learning the individual building blocks of words – phonemes, or the distinct units of sound that make up a word. The authors of this study noted that music, “like language, is based in the auditory modality and the primary mode of music production, singing, uses the same vocal apparatus as speech” (112). This study examined the relationship between phonological awareness, music perception skills, as well as early reading skills. Researchers recruited 100 participants (fifty 4-year-olds and fifty 5-year-olds) from Canadian schools and daycares. The children were given a series of tests examining a child’s phonemic awareness, reading, vocabulary, music, memory, and mathematics skills. The music tests involved were played on a cassette player to children individually in a quiet room. Researchers then examined the data to determine whether there is a relationship between the music variables and the phonological variables. Data revealed that by age 5, pitch and rhythmic abilities have emerged in children. Tests also revealed a significant correlation between phonological awareness and reading. Findings showed a relationship between music perception and reading skill level. Results also showed that auditory memory is involved in the relation between music and reading, but only in the 4-year-old group. Vocabulary size was not found to have an involvement in the relation between music and reading in either group, while mathematical ability was not involved in the relationship between music and reading.


This study supports the fact that songs and music are integral to literacy education. The authors of this study suggest that “phonological awareness and music perception […] may share some of the same auditory mechanisms,” which bolsters the notion that by singing and playing music during storytimes, sounds that children hear in songs may be strengthening their brains for sounds they hear in words, and ultimately improving their literacy skills (126). In addition, the authors of the study conclude that music ability is associated with good auditory memory – and memory is one important component to learning.


Kultti, Anne. 2013. "Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool." Early Child Development & Care 183, no. 12: 1955-1969. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2117/doi/pdf/10.1080/03004430.2013.765868


This study examined how preschool programs with singing activities facilitated language learning. Citing research by Trevarthen (2011) which showed that musical games and songs support the development of important skills in infants and preschoolers, Kultti laments that singing is not studied as much as other preschool activities. Focusing on eight Swedish preschools with multilingual children between the ages of one to five years who used a language other than Swedish at home, the observations consisted of video recordings that took place once a month for six months. The video recordings were analyzed, and the data was organized by the following categories: time, participants, activity, resources, and topic of communication. Findings showed that singing is a regular activity at the preschool, that singing is initiated and led by the teacher - with distinct learning goals, and that children’s interest are used as a starting point in the singing activities. Three particular examples in which the teacher used a “song box” to initiate songs are cited in order to demonstrate how “singing activities offered multiple ways of communicating and learning language” (1963). Findings also showed toddlers’ use singing in peer interaction and how they used gestures, “artefacts” (or physical tools), and lyrics as resources. (1965). The author concludes by noting that singing activities can differ in many ways and therefore there are numerous opportunities for language learning.


These observations affirm that singing activities can support language and communication of young multilingual children and that teacher guidance is important in guiding the communication and learning possibilities through songs. This research suggests the important role that parents, caretakers, and teachers play to provide educational opportunities through song. By educating parents about these opportunities, children are able to have stronger support for language learning and literacy. This study is also relevant for this partnership because Houston is one of the most diverse cities in the United States, and many of the children who currently participate in the library’s literacy programs come from multicultural backgrounds.


Lynch, Jacqueline, Jim Anderson, Ann Anderson, and Jon Shapiro. 2008. “Parents and Preschool Children Interacting With Storybooks: Children’s Early Literacy Achievement.”Reading Horizons 48, no. 4: 227-242. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/login?url=http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2060/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=34671786&site=ehost-live&scope=site

This study examined the relationship between parent-child interactions during storybook sharing, and the child’s literacy achievement. Citing studies that showed that storybook reading in the early years of school contributed to children’s language skills and reading comprehension in elementary school, researchers sought to conduct their own study to “address the need to focus on areas of interactions in storybook reading that may relate to children’s literacy achievement” (230). Participants between the ages of three and four were recruited from preschools in Western Canada; a total of 13 boys and 22 girls and 28 mothers and 7 fathers from diverse cultural backgrounds were recruited. Parents were interviewed, video recordings of parents interacting with their children were compiled and transcribed, and the Test of Early Reading Ability-2 was administered to the children to assess their language, literacy and math knowledge. Video recordings of shared storybook reading were analyzed and the parent/child interactions were categorized into gestures, print/graphophonics, confirmation, clarification, elaboration, association, and prediction. Researchers found that parent clarifications and elaboration statements related to a child’s reading achievement and that children’s confirmation questions related to their overall reading achievement.


Parents were encouraged to engage in various kinds of storybook interactions with children, in particular with interactions that help explain and develop the story in order to develop a child’s literacy development. Research such as this one on culturally diverse families is important for a library system such as Houston Public Library. One important goal of this partnership is to teach parents about the importance of reading aloud to their children, and this research helps to support that goal. These results implied that the need for a parent to elucidate and expand on the stories children read – such as through dialogic reading – is pivotal to a child’s early literacy development.


Paquette, Kelli R., and Sue A. Rieg. 2008. "Using Music to Support the Literacy Development of Young English Language Learners." Early Childhood Education Journal 36, no. 3: 227–232. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/login?url=http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2060/login.aspx?direct=true&db=tfh&AN=35500153&site=ehost-live&scope=site


While this is not an evidence-based study with results, this peer-reviewed scholarly research points to many of the practices for early childhood development. This study cites other research studies that support the claim that music supports English language learners’ literacy development. Incorporating music and song fosters creativity, but it can also be used to teach things such as vocabulary, pronunciation, rhythm, sounds, rhyme, and grammar, according to the authors. The authors also note that “a child’s initial introduction to patterned text often occurs first in songs, chants, and rhymes which are repeated throughout childhood,” and that when songs and rhymes are utilized for teaching young children, “concepts about print become more meaningful and conventions of print are learned in context” (228).


It is important to include this study because it includes a list of song-based literature, which will be important during the children’s book selection process of this partnership. The discussion on using songs in other languages is particularly relevant, especially at my library location, where the majority of children who attend the literacy programs are Hispanic, for many of whom English is their second language.


• Measures for Success 

For objectives related to Goal #1:

1. Session and attendance information will be collected via a shared Google spreadsheet, where each library will report the location, session date, and total number of participants. The forms will be easily accessible by any computer, allowing for easier reporting.

2. Library staff observing the program will submit a Google Form to help determine whether the program incorporated the Every Child Ready to Read techniques and whether they found the program effective.


For objectives related to Goal #2:

1. A Program Survey will be distributed at the end of each session for parents/caregivers. The survey includes statements such as “This program has broadened my knowledge of early literacy” and “I am likely to apply the early literacy techniques learned in this session at home” and parents indicate the level to which they agree or disagree with these statements. The survey will also allow room for the adults to add any comments that can help make improvements or adjustments to the project. Library staff at each location is responsible for collecting all program surveys for their respective locations and submitting them to the Programming Department. Opera staff will have access to the data, which will be entered onto a Google spreadsheet. Poor survey feedback should be addressed in conference calls between the Library and the Opera.

2. A separate survey will be sent via Google Forms to the library staff member who was present during the program to help determine the success of the program. This staff survey will ask three questions: 1. Did the presenter show up on time? 2. Did the program incorporate Every Child Ready to Read: talk, sing, read, write, and play techniques? 3. Do you think this program was effective for the children and parents/caretakers?

For objectives related to Goal #3:

1. Library staff is responsible for making at least 2,000 outreach contacts during the Phase I of the program promotion (February 2015-May 2015). Reaching out to a group of 30 parents at a Parent Teacher Association meeting would count as 30 contacts, for example. This data will also be compiled using a Google spreadsheet, which will help keep a running total of the number of contacts as well as the number of outreaches.

2. The Google spreadsheet will keep track of the total number of contacts. While Phase 1 To reach over 3,000 adults and children at the end of the first year of the program. Opera and Library will conference call after week 2 of the program to review attendance numbers. Libraries with multiple sessions with attendance totals below 10 attendees per session may be dropped, and the program may be transferred to a new location.

• Benefits 

Benefits for the non-profit agency:

1. The Opera will benefit from the exposure and publicity (public relations) of giving back to the community.

2. The Opera will potentially gain a new audience that will come to its performances.
3. The Opera will have access to infrastructure – use of library spaces (which it was not aware of before).

4. The Opera may gain donors who currently contribute to the Houston Library Foundation or to the Friends of the Houston Public Library.


Benefits for the library:

1. The Library will gain knowledge of the process of program development, grant writing, and fundraising from the experienced Opera team.

2. The Library will potentially gain new customers who may use the library’s other services.

3. The Library will benefit from exposure and publicity to a wider audience, who may not be aware of the library’s location or its free services.

4. The Library will potentially have more visitors, which is critical to library materials use (circulation) and other use statistics.

5. The Library will potentially benefit from the generous donors that have close ties with the Opera.

Benefits for the community:

1. There are educational benefits to the community: parents/caretakers will learn early literacy skills and best practices, which they can apply at home.

2. There is also an entertainment value to the program for the children, as singing, playing music, and playing are integral to this program.
3. Members of the community who attend these programs will be able to socialize and interact with other families, and likewise children can play with other children, forge friendships, and also learn social skills.

4. Underserved communities will benefit from the program, particularly parents/caretakers those whose first language is not English but want to teach their children English.

5. Long-term benefits of this project are many, but one of them is a more literate community. The Barbara Bush Houston Literacy Foundation (2014) found that a number of community issues are correlated with low literacy levels, including crime rate, health, income, job readiness, and cost to taxpayers.

6. Children who gain early literacy skills are more likely to be better prepared for and succeed in school.

• Responsibilities of the Partners

Non-profit Agency Responsibilities:

1. Fundraising to generate the money needed for this partnership – either through grant writing to Houston Livestock Show & Rodeo or to specific donors who have contributed to existing programs for children.

2. Staffing (Hiring and paying program presenters – singers)

3. Fulfilling orders and distributing the funds accordingly.

4. Publicity on Opera website, on Rodeo program handouts, social media, and other venues.


Library Responsibilities:

1. Staffing (the children’s librarian at each location will observe and evaluate programs at their site)

2. Training program presenter during the development phase of the program
3. Provide the spaces for the programs, and any A/V equipment (TV, CD player or projector). 

4. Library will provide all handouts and materials for parents and supply the print equipment.

5. Library staff is responsible for collecting the attendance numbers and compiling statistics. Both the Library and the Opera will have access to this information. 

Shared Responsibilities:

1. Developing and implementing the program, and making adjustments to the program as needed.

2. Determining which age-appropriate children’s books to order.

3. Library and Opera will work together to establish dates for the programs at the 7 locations.

4. Both entities will work together to compile a report of the program upon completion or termination of the program.


• Budget

Houston Grand Opera staff will contact its donors to gather the financial support to back this project. If not enough money is raised, a grant proposal will be written to the Houston Livestock Show & Rodeo, which has successfully funded two of the Houston Grand Opera’s literacy programs, First Songs, and Storybook Opera. The budget below represents the funds needed for the two-year run of the program:


$60,000 – Singers ($150 per hour session)

$5,000 – Advertisement (including full-page color ads on Rodeo program, 4 col. x 4 inches ad on Houston Chronicle, and an ad in Spanish publication La Subasta)

$3,500 – musical instruments (small drums, cymbals, tambourine, and xylophone for each location)

$2,000 – Training singers in May 2015. 

$1,050 – toner ($50 each x 21 – three per location)

$1,000 – paper (20 boxes of 10 reams x $50/each)

$1,000 – Children’s books (40 books x $25/each)

$73,550 – TOTAL BUDGET

Note: Library staff time and efforts are not accounted for in this budget, as it varies from location to location, depending on the library staff member’s position and salary ($12/hour for a customer service clerk up to $23/hour for a Librarian II). Prep time for each program is typically one hour – roughly 30 minutes before and 30 minutes afterward. Library programs such as these are part of the job description for staff in the children’s department and therefore would not constitute extra pay in addition to their existing salary. However, these numbers can help determine the “cost” to the library: If there are approximately 200 programs in one year, the cost is anywhere between $4,800 and $9,200 each year just on program setup and observation for one location.


Planning and printing program flyers and posters, promotion and publicity, conducting outreaches, conference calling, and other preparation requires a greater number of hours and various staff members – possibly an average of 10 hours per week per location, especially during Phase I of the promotion in early 2015. The cost to the library is roughly $120-$230/week, depending various factors, including staff member’s pay, and the distance of the outreach site from the library.


• Time 
The program will run at Houston Public Libraries June 2015 – May 2017. It will begin in June to take advantage of the large Summer Reading Program audiences that come to library programs during summer months. 

January 2015 – Opera contacts donors or writes grant to Houston Livestock Show & Rodeo.

February 2015 – Secure funding source(s).

March 2015 – Deadline to have established funding. Once funding is received: Begin project development. Order books and other supplies (paper, toner, instruments). Begin promotional campaign. Develop handouts.

April 2015 – Deadline to have program outlined. Deadline to have handouts finalized.

May 2015 – Train 3-4 singers (to have a pool in case one cannot make it to one location).


June 2015 – Begin program; official program kickoff. Second & third weeks: conference call with Opera to assess the program, make necessary changes. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.
July 2015 – Conference call with Opera at least once during each subsequent month to review program successes and challenges. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.
August 2015 – Conference call. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.
September 2015 – Conference call. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.
October 2015 – Conference call. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.
November 2015 – Conference call. Year 1 halfway point - ensure that attendance total is over 1,500, as busiest time of year has passed. Increase promotion as necessary. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.
December 2015 – Conference call. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.

January 2016 – Conference call. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.

February 2016 – Conference call. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.

March 2016 – Conference call. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.

April 2016 – Conference call. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.

May 2016 – Ensure that attendance goal of 3,000 is being met by end of month. If attendance is lower than expected, discuss options and what actions to take with Opera. Second week: conference call with Opera to assess the program, make necessary changes entering Year 2. Review parent/caretaker program surveys.


June 2016 – Year 2 begins. Repeat the timeline from first year; ensure that overall attendance total is over 4,500 in November 2016. 
May 2017 – Ensure that attendance goal of 6,000 is being met by end of month. Program ends. Review parent/caretaker program surveys. End of month: Meet with Opera to present thank you card and have a closing celebration/ceremony. Ensure all Opera property is returned.

June 2017 – Work with the Opera to compile a final report of the program.

• Ending the Partnership

Deal breaker(s):

1. Funding – If funding sources are not obtained, program cannot proceed.
2. Branding – If partnership logos are not included in publications and all communications, Opera has the right to terminate the partnership, though it will negotiate with the Library.

3. Attendance – If attendance totals fail to reach 2,000 the first year, the Opera reserves the right to cancel the partnership, as it has a commitment to its donors. Accountability is important to the Opera.
4. Economy – The Houston Public Library budget is determined by the City of Houston. Should the economic climate take a downturn next fiscal year, and force the library to make drastic budget cuts resulting in reduced public hours, layoffs or library closings, this could impede the library to staff/facilitate the program.

Bless and release (exit strategy):
Should the program not be successful (as measured by program attendance goals) by the end of the first year, the Houston Grand Opera will reserve the right to cancel the partnership altogether and utilize any remaining funds as allowed by its donors. Musical instruments and children’s books will remain property of the Houston Grand Opera and will be returned at the end of the partnership. Severely damaged or stolen items should have been reported immediately to the Houston Grand Opera. Normal wear and tear is expected of these items.

Should the Opera staff point person leave the Opera due to promotion, transfer, termination, illness or death the Opera must appoint someone else from their HGOco team to lead the project. Should Library staff point person leave the Houston Public Library due to promotion, transfer, termination, illness or death Houston Public Library must appoint another staff member to lead the project. Other staff may be appointed to help out with the project as needed.

The Houston Public Library shall retain any unused paper and toner at the end of the project, which it is free to use as needed in its daily library operations. Flyers and promotional materials will also remain property of the Houston Public Library. Upon termination of the project, however, the Houston Public Library will be responsible for destroying all program-related printed material.

Should circumstances lead to one or both partners requesting termination, the exit strategy will be amicable and professional. Both partners may have future opportunities for future collaborations and should therefore make every effort to end on positive terms. Should the program last for the duration of two-year run and meet the attendance and project goals, the Houston Grand Opera and the Houston Public Library should celebrate and reconvene to potentially continue the program or establish a new partnership.


• Reflection on Capstone Project, Stage 3

The seed for this project had been planted well before I enrolled in LS 5843: Practicum Capstone course. It began at the TLA annual conference in 2014 when I attended the conference panel called “Music Soothes The Savage Kid’s Soul: Early Childhood Music,” in which Heidi Scheibmeir highlighted the importance of music and singing in relationship to language learning. What I was exposed to during this conference presentation helped to spark an idea for this Capstone project. The information learned at this conference panel also represents just one example of my applied learning to real-world situations.


This project demonstrates Student Learning Outcome 1: Effectively connect classroom theories to real-world experiences through practical application of knowledge. This project represents a culmination of my two-year Masters program learning. Courses such as LS 5343: Youth Programs and FS 5203: Language and Literacy of Early Childhood Development have provided foundational theories of the importance of reading aloud to children, as well as the five practices outlined in the 2nd edition of Every Child Ready to Read: read, talk, play, write, and sing. I was able to apply learning from these courses into development of this real-world partnership.  


This project also demonstrates Student Learning Outcome 2: Accurately assess knowledge and skills related to personal or professional goals to include collaboration, application, and problem solving in a several ways. For one, time was and will continue to be the biggest challenge for this partnership, particularly because of the distinct operational demands of each entity. Opera staff members, like library staff members, have existing job assignments obligations that may not allow them much free time to work on this project. It was as a result of this that Opera singers would be needed and would make up the large bulk of the budget. This partnership will test my ability to think critically in order to work closely with Opera staff to make this collaboration work. One of the “tools for success” of any partnership is being willing to give the time (Harrington, 2014, p. 4). At the same time, delays or hurdles may come up that may set the project back; both agencies will need to work to mitigate these time-related obstacles. In order to work more effectively, I will also need to manage time wisely, which is a critical skill for any public librarian to have.

Collaborating with the Opera has also allowed me to understand how nonprofits with a large budget operate. For example, while this project began as a one-year, one-branch program to with a goal of reaching 500 parent/caretakers and their children. Soon, I discovered that in order for the Opera to receive grant money, it would have to make a larger impact on the community. Working with other organizations sometimes requires making some sacrifices in order to fulfill the goals of both parties. As a result, it needed to include more libraries and it needed to be expanded to two years to allow for continuity and stability in the program. It also made this project more ambitious, and therefore more “bang” for the donor’s buck.

Once the project expanded to include other Houston Public Library locations, it became impossible for only one person to manage and still be able to fulfill other library obligations. As a result, I learned to forge collaborations with three important departments within the Houston Public Library: First, the Programming Department, who would take on the role of compiling the data. All library locations would be sending their surveys directly to the Programming Department and staff from that department would be responsible for entering it into the Google spreadsheet. The library’s Print Shop department is also crucial to this partnership. Print Shop would be able to efficiently print out promotional flyers to library locations, use approved graphics and include appropriate organizational logos, and it would work closely with the Communications Department, which has to approve all library communication (including flyers). The Communications Department will also promote the program on social media sites like Facebook and Twitter. Without the support from the Programming Department, the Print Shop, and the Communications Department, this collaboration would be nearly impossible. Finally, this project will require the collaboration of all seven library locations. As obstacles come up, (such as low attendance during the first week or any miscommunication of information) it will test the problem-solving skills of all Houston Public Library and Houston Grand Opera staff, as everyone involved in this project, including myself, will be behind this program, pushing it to succeed.





American Library Association. 2009. “Competencies for Librarians Serving Children in Public Libraries.” Accessed November 12, 2014. http://www.ala.org/alsc/edcareeers/alsccorecomps  


Anvari, Sima. H., Laurel J. Trainor, Jennifer Woodside, and Betty Ann Levy. 2002. "Relations Among Musical Skills, Phonological Processing, and Early Reading Ability in Preschool Children." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 83, no. 2: 111-130. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0965(02)00124-8


Barbara Bush Houston Literacy Foundation. 2014. "Houston’s Literacy Crisis: A Blueprint for Community Action." Accessed November 12, 2014. http://bbhlforg.nextmp.net/media/site_media/blueprint-full.pdf

Collage created at PicMonkey.com.

Every Child Ready to Read. 2014. “Description of Toolkit Materials.” Accessed November 12, 2014. http://www.everychildreadytoread.org/description-toolkit-materials


Harrington, M. B. 2014. "Identifying Community Assets to Build Strategic Partners." PowerPoint Presentation. Accessed November 12, 2014. https://www.dropbox.com/s/gyd09tkvxceo0is/Harrington_Identifying%20Community%20Assets%20to%20Build%20Strategic%20Partnerships.pptx?dl=0


Kultti, Anne. 2013. "Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool." Early Child Development & Care 183, no. 12: 1955-1969. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2117/doi/pdf/10.1080/03004430.2013.765868

Literacy Matters Logo created at Tagxedo.com.

Lynch, Jacqueline, Jim Anderson, Ann Anderson, and Jon Shapiro. 2008. “Parents and Preschool Children Interacting With Storybooks: Children’s Early Literacy Achievement.” Reading Horizons 48, no. 4: 227-242. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/login?url=http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2060/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=34671786&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Nemo. 2012. "animals-44569_1280." Pixabay.com. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://pixabay.com/en/animals-mouse-singing-beaver-fox-44569/

Open Clips. 2013. "girl-160167_1280." Pixabay.com. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://pixabay.com/en/girl-book-school-reading-learning-160167/ 

Paquette, Kelli R., and Sue A. Rieg. 2008. "Using Music to Support the Literacy Development of Young English Language Learners." Early Childhood Education Journal 36, no. 3: 227–232. Accessed November 12, 2014. http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2048/login?url=http://ezproxy.twu.edu:2060/login.aspx?direct=true&db=tfh&AN=35500153&site=ehost-live&scope=site


Turchetti, Carla. 2012. "Why Every Partnership Should Have an Exit Strategy." American Express. Accessed November 12, 2014. https://www.americanexpress.com/us/small-business/openforum/articles/why-every-partnerships-should-have-an-exit-strategy/


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